Reverse Exchanges – The Exchange Process and Time Clocks
Safe Harbor Reverse Exchanges – Rev. Proc. 2000-37 issued by the IRS on September 15, 2000 established recognition of and “safe harbor” guidance for Reverse Exchanges complying with the guidelines. These are known as “Safe Harbor Reverse Exchanges.” Reverse Exchanges which are not in compliance with the guidelines are not prohibited by Rev. Proc. 2000-37 but must stand or fall on their own merits and are referred to as “Non-Safe Harbor Reverse Exchanges.”
Reverse Exchanges of either type are common and occur when a taxpayer arranges for an Exchange Accommodation Titleholder (EAT) (usually the Intermediary) to take and temporarily hold title to Replacement Property before a taxpayer finds a buyer for his Relinquished Property. Sometimes the exchange accommodation titleholder will take and hold title to the Relinquished Property until a buyer can be found for it. Reverse Exchanges of either type are useful in circumstances where a taxpayer needs to close on the purchase of Replacement Property before a Relinquished Property can be sold or where the taxpayer desires ample time to search for suitable Replacement Property before selling a Relinquished Property which starts the 45-day and 180-day clocks for Delayed Exchanges. Reverse Exchanges are also common where a taxpayer wants to acquire a property and construct improvements on it before taking title to the property as Replacement Property. This is necessary if the value of the improvements is important for replacing with property of equal or greater value in order to avoid a taxable “trade-down.”
Rev. Proc. 2004-51 issued in 2004 added an additional requirement for Reverse Exchanges to be under the safe harbor “umbrella.” Any property which has been previously owned by the taxpayer within the prior 180 days is declared ineligible for protection under the Rev. Proc. 2000-37 safe harbor procedures.
The Safe Harbor Reverse Exchange Time Clocks. The safe-harbor procedures impose compliance requirements which require analysis for impact and planning that can be summarized as follows:
The 5-Day Rule. A “Qualified Exchange Accommodation Agreement” must be entered into between the taxpayer and the exchange accommodation titleholder (Qualified Intermediary in most cases) within five business days after title to property is taken by the exchange accommodation titleholder in anticipation of a Reverse Exchange.
The 45-Day Rule. The property to be “relinquished” (the Relinquished Property) must be identified within 45 days. More than one potential property to be sold can be identified in a manner similar to the rules of delayed exchanges (i.e., the three-property rule, the 200% rule, etc.)
The 180-Day Rule. The Reverse Exchange must be completed within 180 days of taking title by the exchange accommodation titleholder.
The 180-Day Clock. as with Delayed Exchanges, Reverse Exchanges must be completed within 180 days. Prior to the issuance of Rev. Proc. 2000-37 there was no statutory limitation of time in which to be in title. It was common for the Exchange Accommodation Titleholder to be in title on the parked property for a year or more. The taxpayer would search for a buyer for his Relinquished Property or have improvements constructed on the property being held by the Titleholder. 180 days may be a suitable time for a buyer to be found for the Relinquished Property. However, 180 days is a problem with respect to construction/improvement exchanges. The 180 day time limit within which to complete a Safe Harbor Reverse Exchange is probably insufficient for most large “build to suit” exchanges.
What if the taxpayer has not yet found a buyer for his Relinquished Property by the end of 180 days? In this case, the taxpayer can discontinue his attempt to accomplish a Reverse Exchange and take deed to the Replacement Property. The taxpayer may decide to extend his Reverse Exchange outside of the protection of the safe harbor procedures. The safe harbor guidance issued by the IRS is not mandatory. Reverse Exchanges that do not comply with the requirements of Rev. Proc. 2000-37 stand or fall on their own merits and should be considered to have a higher degree of audit risk.
Rev. Proc. 2000-37 imposes responsibilities and burdens on the Exchange Accommodator Titleholder. The Accommodator is required to report, for federal income tax purposes, the “tax attributes” of ownership of the property it is in title on. Rents and expenses attributed to ownership of the property may have to be reported by the Accommodator. It is unclear if the Accommodator has to also report depreciation on the property it is in title on just as a true owner would be compelled to do.